Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction

Advanced search

Autoimmune thyroiditis in different age groups and subjects of reproductive age in Adzhariya population


Introduction. Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is the most prevalent among the autoimmune pathologies and multifactorial thyroid diseases; accordingly, remaining a pressing issue for investigation.

Aim: to study AIT profile in different age groups of the female population in the western region of Georgia – Adzhariya.

Materials and Methods. A prospective comparative study in parallel groups was carried out. There were examined 405 samples of venous blood obtained at «Health» Clinic from women of two groups: group 1 – 159 patients with AIT, group 2 (control) – 246 women without AIT. Blood samples were collected between the years 2017 and 2020. There were analyzed serum antibodies against thyroperoxidase (TPOAb), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as level of free thyroxine (FT4) by using enzyme immunoassay.

Results. Patients with AIT from different age groups vs. control group were found to have decreased level of FT4, but increased amount of TSH and TPOAb. At the reproductive age (18–45 years), a significant increase in the level of TSH was found (6.12 times) compared with the control group (p < 0.0001). The level of FT4 and TSH in AIT women aged 51 to 60 years was 0.7880 ± 0.3584 ng/ml and 4.754 ± 2.433 U/ml that significantly differed from those in the control group – 1.314 ± 0.4044 ng/ml (p < 0.0001) and 2.276 ± 1.409 U/ml (p < 0.0001), respectively.

Conclusion. AIT occurs in women of all age groups, but is more common in women aged 51 to 60 years. In a number of cases, TPOAb was detected in the control group, which, apparently, is associated with increased intake of dietary iodized salt since 2005 in Georgia (the adoption of the law on universal salt iodization). A significant increase in the level of TSH, in AIT women aged 18–45 years, strongly suggests to perform diagnostics of and screening for AIT not only in females of menopausal period, but also in reproductive age. 

About the Authors

N. G. Tchelidze
Shota Rustaveli Batumi State University

MD, Doctoral Student, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Healthcare,

35 Ninoshvili Str., Batumi 6010

S. Z. Glonti
Shota Rustaveli Batumi State University; «Health» Clinic LTD

MD, Dr Sci Med, Professor, Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Healthcare, 35 Ninoshvili Str., Batumi 6010;

Head of Clinical Trials, 31/35 Asatiani/Zubalashvili Str., Batumi 6001

D. Sh. Baratashvili
Shota Rustaveli Batumi State University

 MD, Dr Sci Biol, Professor, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Healthcare, 

35 Ninoshvili Str., Batumi 6010

N. O. Kedelidze
Shota Rustaveli Batumi State University

MD, Dr Sci Biol, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Healthcare,

35 Ninoshvili Str., Batumi 6010

J. Yu. Ungiadze
Shota Rustaveli Batumi State University; Iris Borchashvili Health Center «Medina»

MD, Dr Sci Med, Professor, Faculty of Medicine, MD, Dr Sci Biol, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Healthcare, 35 Ninoshvili Str., Batumi 6010;

Director, 237 Fridon Khalvashi Avenue, Batumi 6004

I. I. Nakashidze
Shota Rustaveli Batumi State University

MD, Dr Sci Biol, Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Healthcare,

35 Ninoshvili Str., Batumi 6010


1. Vanderpump M.P.J. The epidemiology of thyroid disease. Br Med Bull. 2011;99:39–51.

2. Vanderpump M.P.J. Epidemiology of thyroid disorders. In: The thyriod and its diseases. Springer, Cham, 2019. 75–85.

3. Burek C.L., Talor M.V. Environmental triggers of autoimmune thyroiditis. J Autoimmun. 2009;33(3–4):183–9.

4. Li H., Yuan X., Liu L. et al. Clinical evaluation of various thyroid hormones on thyroid function. Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:618572.

5. Leyhe T., Müssig K. Cognitive and affective dysfunctions in autoimmune thyroiditis. Brain Behav Immun. 2014;41:261–6. bbi.2014.03.008.

6. Krassas G.E., Poppe K., Glinoer D. Thyroid function and human reproductive health. Endocr Rev. 2010;31(5):702–55.

7. Williams G.R., Bassett J.D. Thyroid diseases and bone health. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018;41(1):99–109.

8. Prummel M.F., Strieder T., Wiersinga W.M. The environment and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;150(5):605–18.

9. Farh K.K.H., Marson A., Zhu J. et al. Genetic and epigenetic fine mapping of causal autoimmune disease variants. Nature. 2015;518(7539):337–43.

10. Yoo W.S., Chung H.K. Recent advances in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2016;31(3):379–85.

11. Rayman M.P. Multiple nutritional factors and thyroid disease, with particular reference to autoimmune thyroid disease. Proc Nutr Soc. 2019;78(1):34–44.12.

12. Allelein S., Feldkamp J., Schott M. Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland. Internist (Berl). 2017;58(1):47–58. [Article in German].

13. Weetman A.P. Determinants of autoimmune thyroid disease. Nat Immunol. 2001;2(9):769–70.

14. Vanderpump M.P.J., Tunbridge W.M.G. Epidemiology and prevention of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid. 2002;12(10):839–47.

15. Fairweather D., Frisancho-Kiss S., Rose N.R. Sex differences in autoimmune disease from a pathological perspective. Am J Pathol. 2008;173(3):600–9.

16. Quintero O.L., Amador-Patarroyo M.J., Montoya-Ortiz, G. et al. Autoimmune disease and gender: plausible mechanisms for the female predominance of autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 2012;38(2–3):J109–19.

17. Muller A.F., Drexhage H.A., Berghout A. Postpartum thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroiditis in women of childbearing age: recent insights and consequences for antenatal and postnatal care. Endocr Rev. 2001;22(5):605–30.

18. Weetman A.P. Autoimmune thyroid disease. Autoimmunity. 2004;37(4):337–40.

19. Alaedini A., Green P.H. Autoantibodies in celiac disease. Autoimmunity. 2008;41(1):19–26.

20. Rose N.R. Prediction and prevention of autoimmune disease: a personal perspective. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1109:117–28.

21. Nordio M., Basciani S. Treatment with myo-inositol and selenium ensures euthyroidism in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Int J Endocrinol. 2017;2017:2549491.

22. Metro D., Cernaro V., Papa M., Benvenga S. Marked improvement of thyroid function and autoimmunity by Aloe barbadensis miller juice in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. J Clin Transl Endocrinol. 2018;11:18–25.

23. Tipu H.N., Ahmed D., Bashir M.M., Asif N. Significance of testing antithyroid autoantibodies in patients with deranged thyroid profile. J Thyroid Res. 2018;2018:9610497.

24. Balucan F.S., Morshed S.A., Davies T.F. Thyroid autoantibodies in pregnancy: their role, regulation and clinical relevance. J Thyroid Res. 2013;2013:182472.

25. Mikoś H., Mikoś M., Obara-Moszyńska M., Niedziela M. The role of the immune system and cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Endokrynol Pol. 2014;65(2):150–5.

26. Effraimidis G., Feldt-Rasmussen U. Hashimoto׳s thyroiditis. In: Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. Elsevier, 2018. B978-0-12-801238-3.96004-5.

27. Biondi B., Cooper D.S. The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Endocr Rev. 2008;29(1):76–131.

28. Kostic I., Curcio F. Causes of hypothyroidism. In: Hypothyroidism – Influences and Treatments. Springer, 2012. 151–66.

29. Roos A., Links T.P., de Jong-van den Berg L.T.W et al. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies, levels of thyroid stimulating hormone and development of hypothyroidism in euthyroid subjects. Eur J Intern Med. 2010;21(6):555– 9.

30. Siriwardhane T., Krishna K., Ranganathan V. et al. Significance of AntiTPO as an early predictive marker in thyroid disease. Autoimmune Dis. 2019;2019:1684074.

31. Krassas G.E. Thyroid disease and female reproduction. Fertil Steril. 2000;74(6):1063–70.

32. del Ghianda S., Tonacchera M., Vitti P. Thyroid and menopause. Climacteric. 2014;17(3):225–34. 838554.

33. Goodman N., Cobin R., Ginzburg S. et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the diagnosis and treatment of menopause: executive summary of recommendations. Endocr Pract. 2011;17(6):949–54.

34. Poppe K., Velkeniers B., Glinoer D. Thyroid disease and female reproduction. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007;66(3):309–21.

35. Nakashidze I., Diasamidze A., Baratashvili D. et al. Alteration of sex and non-sex hormones and distribution features of blood ABO system groups among the women with uterine body tumors. J Cancer Therapy. 2014;5(5):411–9.

36. Saran S., Gupta B.S., Philip R. et al. Effect of hypothyroidism on female reproductive hormones. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016;20(1):108.

37. Rashad N.M., Moafy H., Saleh H.S. et al. Anti-Müllerian hormone: predictor of premature ovarian insufficiency in Egyptian women with autoimmune thyroiditis. Middle East Fertil Soc J. 2018;23(4):286–91.

38. Bove R. Autoimmune diseases and reproductive aging. Clin Immunol. 2013;149(2):251–64.


For citations:

Tchelidze N.G., Glonti S.Z., Baratashvili D.S., Kedelidze N.O., Ungiadze J.Yu., Nakashidze I.I. Autoimmune thyroiditis in different age groups and subjects of reproductive age in Adzhariya population. Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction. 2022;16(1):8-15. (In Russ.)

Views: 570

ISSN 2313-7347 (Print)
ISSN 2500-3194 (Online)