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Georgios Nicolaou Papanicolaou (1883-1962)

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Georgios Nicolau Papanicolaou was a “pioneer’ in the study of the cytological features of the female reproductive system. He became known worldwide due to creation of PAP-test, commonly known as Pap-smear that revolutionized the early detection of cervical cancer. Several hundred million women pass the PAP-test every year, and tens of thousands owe their lives to this outstanding scientist.

About the Author

K. N. Grigorieva
Sechenov University
Russian Federation

Kristina N. Grigoreva - 6th year Student, Faculty of Pediatrics.

62 St. Zemlyanoi Val, Moscow 109004


1. Koss L.G. Papanicolaou’s 100th birthday. Acta Cytol. 1983;27(3):217-9.

2. Vilos G.A. The history of the Papanicolaou smear and the odyssey of George and Andromache Papanicolaou. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91(3):479-83. DOI: 10.1016/s0029-7844(97)00695-9.

3. Chantziantoniou N. The Pap test - celebrating 100 years in the making and beyond. J Am Soc Cytopathol. 2014;3(3):143-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.jasc.2013.12.002.

4. Chantziantoniou N. Lady Andromache (Mary) Papanicolaou -The soul of gynecological cytopathology. J Am Soc Cytopathol. 2014;3(6);319-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.jasc.2014.08.004.

5. Stockard C., Papanicolaou G.N. A rhythmical “Heat period” in the guinea pig. Science. 1917;46(1176):42-4. DOI: 10.1126/science.46.1176.42.

6. Stockard C.R., Papanicolaou G.N. The existence of a typical oestrous cycle in the guinea-pig - with a study of its histological and physiological changes. Amer J Anat. 1917;22(2):225-83. DOI: 10.1002/aja.1000220204.

7. Carmichael D.E. The Pap Smear: Life of George N. Papanicolaou. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd, 1973. 122 p.

8. Michalas S.P. The Pap test: George N. Papanicolaou (1883-1962). A screening test for the prevention of cancer of uterine cervix. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000;90(2):135-8. DOI: 10.1016/s0301-2115(00)00260-8.

9. Papanicolaou G.N., Traut H.F. The diagnostic value of vaginal smears in carcinoma of the uterus. 1941. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997;121(3):211-24.

10. Papanicolaou G.N. Atlas of Exfoliative Cytology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1954.

11. Mammas I.N., Spandidos D.A. George N. Papanicolaou (1883-1962), an exceptional human, scientist and academic teacher: An interview with Dr. Neda Voutsa-Perdiki. Exp Ther Med. 2017;14(4):3346-9. DOI: 10.3892/etm.2017.5011.

12. High risk pregnancy. Eds. A.D. Makatsariya, F.A. Chervenak, V.O. Bitsadze. [Beremennost’ vysokogo riska. Pod red. A.D. Makatsariya, F.A., Chervenak, V.O. Bitsadze]. Moskva: MIA, 2015. 920 s. (In Russ.).


For citation:

Grigorieva K.N. Georgios Nicolaou Papanicolaou (1883-1962). Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction. 2020;14(1):112-116. (In Russ.)

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ISSN 2313-7347 (Print)
ISSN 2500-3194 (Online)