Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction

Advanced search


Full Text:


Purpose of studies – to analyze the evolution of cytological technologies in the cervical screening on the basis on the basis of the technical data.

Маterials and methods. The survey comprises the data of foreign and national articles, published in Pubmed on the topic during last 15 years.

Results. Describes the history of creation and clinical implementation of Papanicolau test (PAP-test), prerequisites for the liquid technology of the cytological studies. The comparative characteristics of ThinPrep and SurePath liquid cytology method is given, аs well as of automated analysis systems.

Conclusion. The liquid cytology has proved its advantages and during the last decade replaced the traditional method of cytological studies in screening programs of many world countries. SurePath technology combined with the automated FocalPoint analysis system increases the disease intelligence level, the laboratory efficiency and allows to improve the cervical screening quality.

About the Author

G. N. Мinkinа
FSBEI HE A.I. Yevdokimov MSMSU MOH Russia
Russian Federation

MD, Professor of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, FSBEI HE A.I. Yevdokimov MSMSU MOH Russia. Address: ul. Delegatskaya 20/1, Moscow, Russia, 127473. Tel.: +7(499)1785971 


1. Diamantis A., Magiorkinis E., Koutselini H. 50 years after the death of George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883-1962): evaluation of his scientific work. Acta Med Hist Adriat. 2014; 12 (1): 181-8.

2. What are the key statistics about cervical cancer? American Cancer Society Web site. Revised December 23, 2010. Accessed: 10.02.2011.

3. Новик В.И. Скрининг рака шейки матки. Практическая онкология. 2010; 11 (2): 66-73.

4. Dehn D., Torkko KC., Shroyer KR. Human papillomavirus testing and molecular markers of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma. Cancer. 2007; 111 (1): 1-14.

5. Cox T., Cuzick J. HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening: from evidence to policies. Gynecol Oncol. 2006 Oct; 103 (1): 8-11.

6. Koss LG. Cervical (Pap) smear. New directions. Cancer. 1993 Feb 15; 71 (4): 1406-12.

7. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 99: management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology. Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 112: 1419- 1444.

8. Hartmann K., Hall S.A., Nanda K. et al. Systematic Evidence Review Number 25: Screening for Cervical Cancer. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed: 10.02.2011.

9. The ThinPrep 2000 System [package insert]. Marlborough, MA: Hologic, Inc; 2010.

10. SurePath® Collection [product insert]. Franklin Lakes, NJ: Becton, Dickinson and Company; 2009.

11. Solomon D., Davey D., Kurman R., Moriarty A., O'Connor D., Prey M. et al. Forum Group Members; Bethesda 2001 Workshop. The 2001 Bethesda System: terminology for reporting results of cervical cytology. JAMA. 2002; 287: 2114-2119.

12. Rask J., Lynge E., Franzmann M., Hansen B., Hjortebjerg A., Rygaard C. et al. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women. Int J Cancer. 2014 May 1; 134 (9): 2168-79.

13. Rozemeijer K., Penning C., Siebers AG., Naber SK., Matthijsse SM., van Ballegooijen M., et al. Comparing SurePath, ThinPrep, and conventional cytology as primary test method: SurePath is associated with increased CIN II+ detection rates. Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Jan; 27 (1): 15-25.

14. Nance KV. Evolution of Pap Evolution of Pap testing at a community hospital: a ten year experience.Diagn Cytopathol. 2007 Mar; 35 (3): 148-53.

15. Gibb RK., Martens MG. The impact of liquid-based cytology in decreasing the incidence of cervical cancer. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 4 (1): 2-11.

16. Fremont-Smith M., Marino J., Griffin B. et al. Comparison of the SurePath liquid-based Papanicolaou smear with the conventional Papanicolaou smear in a multisite direct-to-vial study. Cancer. 2004; 102: 269-279.

17. Eversole G.M., Moriarty A.T., Schwartz M.R. et al. Practices of participants in the College of American Pathologists interlaboratory comparison program in cervicovaginal cytology, 2006. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010; 134: 331-335.

18. Bigras G., Malgorzata A.R., Lambercy J.M., Kunz B., Chatelain J.P., Reymond O., Cornaz D. Keeping collecting device in liquid medium is mandatory to ensure optimized liquid-based cervical cytologic sampling. J Low Gen Tract Dis 2003; 7: 168-174.

19. Umana A., Dunsmore H., Herbert A., Jokhan A., Kubba A. Are significant numbers of abnormal cells lost on the discarded ThinPrep(R) broom when used for cervical cytology? Cytopathology. 2013; 24: 228-234.

20. Sweeney B.J., Haq Z., Happel J.F., Weinstein B., Schneider D. Comparison of the effectiveness of two liquid-based Papanicolaou systems in the handling of adverse limiting factors, such as excessive blood. Cancer. 2006 Feb 25; 108 (1): 27-31.

21. Rozemeijer K., Naber S.K., Penning C., Matthijsse S.M., van Kemenade F.J., van Ballegooijen M. et al. Cervical cancer incidence after a negative smear: Comparing conventional cytology, ThinPrep and SurePath. Poster presented at the 15th World Congress of the international federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy, London, 2014.

22. Elsheikh T.M, Austin R.M., Chhieng D.F., Miller F.S., Moriarty A.T., Renshaw A.A. American society of cytopathology workload recommendations for automated pap test screening: Developed by the productivity and quality assurance in the era of automated screening task

23. force. Diagnostic Cytopathology, 2013; 41 (2): 174-178.

24. Bengtsson E., Malm P. Screening for cervical cancer using automated analysis of PAP- smears. Comput Math Methods Med. 2014; 2014: 842037.

25. Miller F.S., Nagel L.E., Kenny-Moynihan M.B. Implementation of the ThinPrep imaging system in a high-volume metropolitan laboratory. Diagn Cytopathol. 2007; 35: 213-217.

26. Cervical Cytology: BD FocalPoint™ GS Imaging System. Becton, Dickinson and Company Website. fp_gs_system_process.asp. Accessed: 10.02.2011.

27. Bentz J.S. Liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer screening. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2005 Nov; 5 (6): 857-71.

28. Davey E., d’Assuncao J., Irwig L., Macaskill P., Chan SF., Richards A., Farnsworth A. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study. BMJ. 2007; 335: 31.

29. Papillo J.L., St John T.L., Leiman G. Effectiveness of the ThinPrep Imaging System: clinical experience in a low risk screening population. Diagn Cytopathol. 2008; 36: 155-160.

30. Wilbur D.C., Black-Schaffer W.S., Luff R.D., Abraham K.P., Kemper C., Molina JT. et al. The Becton Dickinson FocalPoint GS Imaging System: clinical trials demonstrate significantly improved sensitivity for the detection of important cervical lesions. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009 Nov; 132 (5): 767-75.

31. Saslow D., Solomon D., Lawson HW., Killackey M., Kulasingam S.L., Cain J. et al. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. Am J Clin Pathol 2012; 137: 516-542.

32. Wright TC. HPV DNA testing for cervical cancer screening. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006; 95 (1): 239-246.

33. Felix J.C., Lacey M., Miller J.D., Lenhart G.M., Spitzer M., Kulkarni R. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016 Jun; 25 (6): 606-16.

34. Шабалова И.П., Минкина Г.Н., Касоян К.Т., Чепурная Ю.Ю., Амелюшкина В.А. Опыт применения жидкостной цитологии в диагностике поражений шейки матки. Лаборатория. 2003; 4: 6-7 / Shabalova I.P., Minkina G.N., Kasoyan K.T., Chepurnaya Yu.Yu., Amelyushkina V.A. Laboratoriya. 2003; 4: 6-7.

35. Shipulina O., Minkina G., Kuevda D. Thin Prep cytology and high risk HPV real-time PCR in cervical cancer screening. EUROGIN 2004. HPV Infection and Cervical Cancer Prevention. Priorities and New directions / International expert meeting. France, Nice, 2004: 48.

36. Минкина Г.Н., Минкина О.В., Шипулина О.Ю. Комбинированный скрининг генитальных инфекций и атипий цервикального эпителия с использованием системы CYTOSCREEN. Материалы VI Российского форума «Мать и дитя». М. 12-15 октября 2004;

37. -421 / Minkina G.N., Minkina O.V., Shipulina O.Yu. Kombinirovannyi skrining genital'nykh infektsii i atipii tservikal'nogo epiteliya s ispol'zovaniem sistemy CYTOSCREEN. Materialy VI Rossiiskogo foruma «Mat' i ditya» [Combined screening for genital infections and cervical epithelial atypia with CYTOSCREEN system. Proceedings of the VI Russian forum "Mother and Child" (in Russian)]. Moscow. 12-15 October 2004; 420-421/

For citation:


Views: 121

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2313-7347 (Print)
ISSN 2500-3194 (Online)