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Antiphospholipid antibodies, genetic thrombophilia and fetal growth retardation

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Aim: to study the role of antiphospholipid antibodies (AРA) and genetic thrombophilia as a potential cause of the development or a component in the pathogenesis of early and late fetal growth retardation (FGR).

Materials and Methods. There was conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial with 118 women enrolled. The main group consisted of 83 patients, whose pregnancy was complicated by FGR degrees II and III, stratified into two groups: group 1 – 36 pregnant women with early FGR, group 2 – 47 pregnant women with late FGR. Women were subdivided into subgroups according to the FGR severity. The control group consisted of 35 pregnant women with a physiological course of pregnancy. АРА were determined according to the Sydney antiphospholipid syndrome criteria by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA): against cardiolipin, β2 -glycoprotein 1, annexin V, prothrombin, etc. (IgG/IgM isotypes); lupus anticoagulant – by the three-stage method with Russell's viper venom; antithrombin III and protein C levels – by chromogenic method; prothrombin gene polymorphisms G20210A and factor V Leiden – by polymerase chain reaction; homocysteine level – by ELISA.

Results. AРA circulation (medium and high titers), genetic thrombophilic defects and/or hyperhomocysteinemia were detected in 40 (48.2 %) patients with FGR, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05): in group 1 (41.7 % of women) AРA (30.6 %) and AРA with genetic thrombophilia or hyperhomocysteinemia (11.1 %) were revealed; in group 2 (51.1 % of women) AРA (21.3 %), AРA with hyperhomocysteinemia (4.3 %), genetic thrombophilia (25.5 %), and due to hyperhomocysteinemia (2.1 %) were found. No differences in prevalence of thrombophilia rate in patients were observed related to FGR severity, but a correlation between the FGR severity and AРA titers was found.

Conclusion. Testing for the presence of AРA, genetic thrombophilia and hyperhomocysteinemia should be recommended for patients with FGR (including those with FGR in medical history), especially in the case of its early onset. It is recommended to determine the full AРA spectrum.

About the Author

E. A. Orudzhova
Maternity Hospital № 1 – Branch of Vorokhobov City Clinical Hospital № 67, Moscow Healthcare Department
Russian Federation

Esmira A. Orudzhova – MD, Head of Antenatal Outpatient Care Center

2/44 Salyama Adilya Str., Moscow 123423


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For citations:

Orudzhova E.A. Antiphospholipid antibodies, genetic thrombophilia and fetal growth retardation. Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction. 2021;15(6):695-704. (In Russ.)

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ISSN 2313-7347 (Print)
ISSN 2500-3194 (Online)