Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction

Advanced search

Ethical context of legally regulated surrogate and genetic motherhood in Russia

Full Text:


Aim: to assess the compliance of legal norms regulating surrogate motherhood and moral concepts about motherhood and childhood in society.

Materials and Methods. The Articles 55 (clause 9) of the Federal Law "On the Fundamentals of Health Protection of Citizens in the Russian Federation", the principles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, and traditional moral concepts common in society of the Russian Federation underwent a comparative analysis.

Results. Discrepancies between moral and legal norms were revealed in 3 issues. Issue 1 is related to the rights for surrogacy of unmarried persons and the rights of single citizens. In an ethical context, the statement of their rights does not correspond to the rights of children to a dignified upbringing in a family composed of a mother and father. Issue 2 refers to the ethical incorrectness of compensated surrogacy contracts. Commercial surrogacy cannot be separated from transformed forms of child trafficking. Issue 3 is related to the moral degradation of motherhood upon using technologies of surrogate and genetic motherhood.

Conclusion. It is necessary to conduct additional studies on using surrogate motherhood in order to prevent abuse and violations upon its application in Russia as well as open up a public discussion on this matter.

About the Author

I. V. Siluyanova
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Health Ministry of Russian Federation
Russian Federation

Irina V. Siluyanova – PhD, Dr Philosophical Sci, Professor, Department of Bioethics, Faculty of General Medicine, Honorary Professor

1 Ostrovityanova Str., Moscow 117997


1. Putin V.V. Presidential Address to the Federal Assembly. [Poslanie Prezidenta Rossii Federal'nomu sobraniyu]. Moscow, 2006. (In Russ.). Available at:

2. Federal Law "On the Basics of Health Protection of Citizens in the Russian Federation" dated November 21, 2011 N 323-FZ. [Federal'nyj zakon «Ob osnovah ohrany zdorov'ya grazhdan v Rossijskoj Federacii» ot 21 noyabrya 2011 g. N 323-FZ]. Moscow, 2011. (In Russ.). Available at:

3. The Constitution of the Russian Federation (was Adopted at National Voting on December 12, 1993 with amendments approved by all-Russian vote on 1 July 2020). [Konstituciya Rossijskoj Federacii (prinyata vsenarodnym golosovaniem 12.12.1993 s izmeneniyami, odobrennymi v hode obshcherossijskogo golosovaniya 01.07.2020, st. 72 zh. 1)]. Moscow, 2020. (In Russ.). Available at:

4. Civil Code of the Russian Federation (CC RF) dated of 30.11.1994 N 51-FZ. [Grazhdanskij kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii (GK RF) ot 30.11.1994 N 51-FZ.]. Moscow, 1994. (In Russ.). Available at:

5. de Boer-Buquicchio M. Thematic report on surrogacy and child trafficking at the 37th session of the Human Rights Council. Geneva, 2018. (In Russ.). Available at:

6. Order of the Ministry of Health of Russia dated July 31, 2020 N 803n "On the procedure for using assisted reproductive technologies, contraindications and restrictions on their use" (registered with the Ministry of Justice of Russia on October 19, 2020 N 60457). [Prikaz Minzdrava Rossii ot 31.07.2020 N 803n «O poryadke ispol'zovaniya vspomogatel'nyh reproduktivnyh tekhnologij, protivopokazaniyah i ogranicheniyah k ih primeneniyu» (zaregistrirovano v Minyuste Rossii 19.10.2020 N 60457)]. Moscow, 2020. (In Russ.). Available at:

7. Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (as amended on December 30, 2020). [Ugolovnyj kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii (s izmeneniyami na 30 dekabrya 2020 goda)]. Moscow, 2020. (In Russ.). Available at:

For citation:

Siluyanova I.V. Ethical context of legally regulated surrogate and genetic motherhood in Russia. Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction. 2021;15(3):270-275. (In Russ.)

Views: 193

ISSN 2313-7347 (Print)
ISSN 2500-3194 (Online)